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Revised August, 1998
© Copyright 1983, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, Bill Davis, John Sybalsky and CALLERLAB. Permission to reprint, republish, and create derivative works without royalty is hereby granted, provided that this notice appears and that all information contained herein is retained in any derivation or publication. Publication on the internet in any form is expressly prohibited without the prior written permission of CALLERLAB.
Read this First
This set of definitions is an attempt to capture the real meaning for each call on the C-1 list. It is intended to serve as the referee for disputes about exactly what a call means, and as a basis for teaching the calls properly. Whenever the "technical" definition of a call is too long or complicated to do a "first teach" from, we have provided a teaching definition or teaching hints. This way, the definitions can meet both sets of needs. Naturally, dancers should be introduced to the full definition of each call as soon as your judgement dictates. Before you use these definitions, you should be familiar with the CALLERLAB Basic/Mainstream definitions, the CALLERLAB Plus definitions, the CALLERLAB Advanced definitions, and the CALLERLAB standard formation names. Where possible, we have used calls and formations defined in those documents. This has let us make the definitions shorter and clearer. Regional Styling Differences

CALLERLAB recommends that calls such as Swing Thru and Spin the Top be danced using the hands-up position and the palm star handhold. Many areas of the square dance world continue to use forearm turns for all turning actions. In order to eliminate the controversy over the use of forearm turns, the CALLERLAB membership approved a 1992 resolution recognizing that regional differences in styling exists.

General Rules
All of the general rules which apply to the Basic/Mainstream, Plus, and Advanced definitions also apply at C-1.

Facing Dancers: Facing dancers, unless otherwise specified, may be any combination of men and women.

Couples: Couples, unless otherwise specified, may be any combination of men and women.

Facing Couples Rule: Some calls that normally start from an ocean wave can also be done from facing couples. In that case, the dancers first step into a momentary right-hand ocean wave and complete the call--unless the caller specifically directs a left-hand call (e.g., Left Swing Thru), in which case the dancers step into a momentary left-hand ocean wave and complete the call. This rule may also apply when calls that require parallel waves are called with the dancers in an eight chain thru formation.
The "Facing Couples" rule applies only to the C-1 calls Alter the Wave, Relay the Shadow, Relay the Top, Swing and Circle, and (Anything) the Windmill (only when it is applicable to the "Anything" call).

Ocean Wave Rule: Some calls that normally start from facing couples can be done from a wave. In that case, the dancers have already stepped forward toward each other and are ready to complete the remaining action of the call. This rule also applies when calls that start from two facing dancers (e.g., Turn Thru) are called from a mini-wave.
The "Ocean Wave Rule" applies only to these C-1 calls (the wave must be right-handed in all cases): Cross Chain Thru, Cross Chain And Roll, Pass the Axle, Rotary Spin, Square Chain the Top, and from a tidal wave, Square the Bases.

Right-Shoulder Rule: Whenever two dancers are moving toward each other and would otherwise collide, they pass right shoulders instead. If two dancers facing opposite directions must occupy the same spot on the floor at the same time, they step to form a right-hand mini-wave instead. You may not have two dancers who are facing the same direction, or at right angles, try to occupy the same spot.

How We Name Dancers
For purposes of the definitions, we often had to identify specific dancers--say, the ends of a wave. There are a lot of ways to name people, and we tried to use the ones that are common at C-1. For reference, we've listed them here:

#1, #2, #3, #4: The dancers in a column are sometimes identified by number. The very lead dancer is called #1; the one behind him is #2, and so on. For example, here's how the dancers below would be named:

Partner: The dancer beside you in the smallest relevant two-dancer formation you are in. This means that, in each of the diagrams below, the dancer labelled 1 is dancer 2's partner.
As another example, if the centers are working together, they ignore the outsides--but if everyone is active, the centers may well have to work with the outsides. For example, from facing lines, compare "Centers Pass Thru and Partner Tag" with "Centers Pass Thru and Everyone Partner Tag":

Points and Centers: In diamonds and hourglasses, there are points and centers. The points in the diagrams below are marked "P" and the centers are marked "C":

Box, Wave, and Diamond Dancers: In parallel diamonds, hourglasses, and galaxies, you can identify dancers by what part of the formation they're in. In parallel diamonds there is a wave inside a box of dancers; in an hourglass there is a diamond inside a box; in a galaxy there is a box inside a diamond. In the diagrams below, "Wave Dancers" are marked W, "Diamond Dancers" are marked D, and "Box Dancers" are marked B:

Centers and Ends: All line-type and column-type formations have ends and centers. The dancers who are nearest the center of the formation are centers, and the others are ends--regardless of their facing direction. In the diagram below, the centers are marked C and the ends are marked E.

Adjacent: Two dancers are said to be "adjacent" if they are close to each other, with no intervening space or other dancers. This is true regardless of the dancers' facing directions. In the diamond and hourglass diagrams below, the dancers marked A are all adjacent to each other; the others aren't adjacent to anyone. In the box diagram, dancers B and C are both adjacent to dancer A, but not to each other.

Leads (or Leaders) and Trailers: In any 1x2 formation (e.g., facing dancers, a tandem, dancers back-to-back), those facing out of the 1x2 formation are called leaders, and those facing into the 1x2 formation are called trailers. A dancer who has one shoulder directly toward the center of the 1x2 formation is neither. In the pictures below, the dancers marked "L" are leaders, and the dancers marked "T" are trailers. Those not marked are neither.

Centers and Outsides: Those dancers who are close to the center of the formation are centers; the others are outsides. In lines and columns, "end" and "outside" are the same; in the other formations below, the centers are marked with C and the outsides with O.

Very Centers: The two dancers closest to the flagpole center of the set are called the very centers or the very center two. This term is only used when exactly two people are closest to the center. They are marked with V's in the pictures below:

Starting Formations
Each call's definition includes a list of possible starting formations for that call. Since it isn't practical to list every formation a call can start from, we don't mean to restrict you to the listed formations. However, this isn't a license to shoehorn a definition into an odd-ball formation. Following the guidelines below will lead you to other legitimate starting formations; anything else should be avoided. The formations listed are usually the smallest from which the call can be done. Larger formations may be made of these smaller "units". For example, Switch to a Diamond is defined to start from a single ocean wave, so it can also be done from parallel waves [ending in parallel diamonds], or from a tidal wave [ending in point-to-point diamonds]. Where they apply, you can use the general rules (Facing Couples, Ocean Wave) to find other starting formations. For instance, Pass and Roll can start from a right-hand box circulate formation even though that formation doesn't appear in the definition's list: The Ocean Wave rule applies. If the word "only" appears in the list, then only the formations listed may be used. You may not apply the Facing Couples or Ocean Wave rules. One call like this is Recycle--the facing-couples definition is not applicable from an ocean wave. If the way you plan to use a call requires that two conflicting rules apply, your usage is improper. For example, using the call Cast a Shadow from lines back to back causes a conflict for the ends: They are both leads, and each must meet the other with the outside hand. At the same time, the right-shoulder rule applies. Because of this conflict, that use of Cast a Shadow is improper. If the formation you give the call from can be broken into two different starting formations for the call, you have to specify which you mean. For example, the call Dixie Style to a Wave can start either from facing couples or from facing tandems. If it is called when the dancers are in a double pass thru formation, they don't know which formation to start the call from--it could be broken down either way. In cases like this, you must tell the dancers which you want: either "Centers Dixie Style to a Wave" or "On a double track, Dixie Style to a Wave". Glossary of Descriptive Terms Used in the Definitions For convenience, we've used some terms which haven't been formally defined before. Again, we've tried to use terms which are common at C-1:

Face In: Means "turn 1/4 in place, turning toward the center of the set".

Face Out: Means "turn 1/4 in place, turning away from the center of the set".

Left Touch: This is the same as the Mainstream call Touch, except the dancers step forward to join left hands--making a left-hand mini-wave.

Left Pass Thru: This is the same as the Mainstream call Pass Thru, except the dancers pass left shoulders.

Touch 1/2, 3/4: Fractions other than 1/4 are allowed with Touch. For example, the call "Touch 1/2" is the same as "Touch and Trade". In the same way, "Touch 3/4" is "Touch and Cast Off 3/4":

Cast Off 1/4, 1/2: Fractions other than 3/4 are allowed with Cast Off. The rule is the same as for Cast Off 3/4, but the dancers move 1/4 or 1/2 instead of going the full 3/4.

Glossary of Modifying Terms
The following terms can be used to modify the action of many calls. While not of the same stature as Concepts, these modifying terms have evolved from common English usage to have the following meaning and usage in the Challenge Program.

Start: The designated dancers will do the first part of the call; everyone else will do the rest of the call. Examples: From an inverted box, "those facing, Start Right & Left Thru". From an inverted box with men as trailers, "Men Start, Pass the Ocean". From inverted lines with ends facing, "Ends Start, Load the Boat". From certain T-Bone boxes, "Ladies Start, Touch 1/4 and Cross".

Finish: Do all but the first part of the call. Examples: "Finish a Motivate", "Finish a Rotary Spin", "Finish a Pass and Roll".

Replace: Dancers can be asked to replace (i.e., substitute) one or more parts of the call (including the remainder of the call) with a different dance action. The part to be replaced can be described by its part number (e.g., "the third part") or by its dance action (e.g., "the stars", "the centers trade"). See also, But. Examples: "Scoot and Plenty, Replace the Box Circulate with a Motivate", "Swing the Fractions, Replace the third part with a Split Circulate", "Scoot and Plenty, Replace the Box Circulate with an Explode the Wave and don't finish the Plenty".

But #1: Certain calls have a stopping point for some or all dancers indicated in the definition by what to do when "But" is used. When "But" is used, these dancers replace the rest of their part of the call with the designated action. Calls which end with the centers casting off 3/4, while the ends do something else traditionally have the "But" mean for the centers to replace the final Cast Off 3/4 with the indicated call. Examples: "Tally Ho, But Explode the Wave", "Chain Reaction, But 2/3 Recycle".

But #2: Used to obtain the dancers attention. In this case it is followed by one of the other modifying terms. Example: "Pass the Axle, But skip the third part", "Motivate, But, Replace the star with a U-Turn Back".

Ignore #1: Can be used to ask the dancers to use all the spots in the formation, but to have designated dancers not move while the others do the call. Example: "Ignore the head men, all Motivate".

Ignore #2: Can be used as an aid in identifying formations. Example: From point-to-point diamonds, "Ignore the head men, Wave-Based Triangle Circulate". From two-faced lines, "Ignore the lead end, lines of 3, Out Roll Circulate".

Ignore #3: Has been used to ask that a dancer and his spot be eliminated while the others do the call. This is considered incorrect usage. Example: From two-faced lines, "Ignore the trailing center, In Roll Circulate".

Interrupt: The dance action of the call will temporarily be suspended at one or more places, at which point the specified action will be preformed. The place can be described by its part (e.g., "after the third part") or by its definition (e.g., "before turning the stars"). Example: "Square Chain Thru, Interrupt before the last part with a Spin the Top".

Skip: A shorthand for "Replace With Nothing". Example: "Pass the Axle, Skip the third part".

Delete: Another shorthand for "Replace With Nothing". Example: "Delete all swing 1/2s and Spin Chain the Gears".

Special note for Replace, Interrupt, But, Skip, and Delete: All of these modifiers may change each dancer's position in the formation or even change the formation itself. When the dancers resume their execution of the call, they must reevaluate their position in the formation and their new part in the definition. Examples: "Square Chain Thru, Interrupt before the last part with a Spin the Top" and Swing the Fractions, Interrupt after each part with a Circulate".

Prefer: Used to designate a dancer or dancers different from those specified in the definition. Two common uses are: from general lines with men facing on the ends, "Prefer the Head Men, In Roll Circulate". From a general line with the men and at least one woman facing the same way, "Prefer the Men, Explode the Line" (i.e., the men step forward and all face and Pull By).

Left: Do the call interchanging right with left, clockwise with counter-clockwise, and promenade with reverse promenade. This modifier is usually used with calls which start with a Pull By or Pass Thru (i.e., "Left Pass And Roll" and "Left Square Chain Thru", but not "Left Swap Around"). In Challenge dancing, the left versions of the calls are part of the program even though they are not explicitly listed.

When the Formation Isn't There
In a number of places, the definitions call for a dancer to do "his part of" some call even when the formation he's working in exists only in the mind's eye. For example, in the call Switch to a Diamond, the ends of the wave Diamond Circulate even though there's no diamond. Similarly, in Flip the Hourglass, the points Run as though they were in parallel lines. The cases used in the definitions are shown below. In each diagram, the corresponding positions in the corresponding formations are labelled alike. Unlabeled dancers have no corresponding places.

The ends of parallel lines or waves may act like the points of an hourglass. Similarly, the points of an hourglass may act as though they were the ends of parallel lines:

The points of a diamond may act like the ends of a line, or vice versa. The centers of a diamond may act like the centers of a line, or vice versa:

The very center two in any formation may act like the centers of an hourglass, and vice versa. Any outsides who are on a center line may act as the other centers of an hourglass, and vice versa:

A wave between vertical mini-waves may be treated as a thar:

How Mainstream, Plus, and Advanced Calls Are Extended at C-1
Several calls are used in limited ways at Mainstream, Plus, and Advanced; at C-1, they are used from more places, or are defined more generally.

Beaus & Belles Naming Convention: At Advanced, this is used only with adjacent dancers facing the same direction. At C-1, it may be used with adjacent dancers facing opposite directions or in T-Bones.

Cast a Shadow: At C-1, you may call Cast A Shadow from any general line in which the ends are in tandem. In particular, it is allowed when all 4 centers are facing in; the centers part in that case is Pass In and Pass Thru, finishing facing out as the centers of lines:

Circulate: At C-1, the call Circulate is also defined from thars, wrong-way thars, promenade, etc. The circulate paths are as shown here:

Recycle: At C-1, the version of this call that starts from a wave is defined to have three parts: First, the centers Fold and all adjust to make a box-circulate formation. Then all Box Counter Rotate 1/4. Then all Quarter In. The result is the same as the Mainstream definition.

Switch to a Diamond: At Advanced, this call is done from a wave only; at C-1, it may start from a general line. If the ends are facing the same way at the start, they meet with right hands, and adjust so the call ends in a diamond (rather than having the centers offset).

Switch to an Hourglass: At Advanced, this call is done from waves only; at C-1, it may start from general lines in which the ends are in tandem.
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